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Latvijas Republikaclick to see more a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europeone of the three Baltic states.

After centuries of SwedishLivonianPolish and Russian rulea rule mainly executed by the privileged Baltic German aristocracyarticle source Republic of Latvia was established on 18 November after declaring independence from Russia in the aftermath of World War I.

Latvia is a democratic republic and a highly developed country. Its capital Riga served as the European Capital of Culture in Latvian is the official language. Latvia is a unitary europa club casino latviadivided into administrative divisionsof which are municipalities and 9 are cities. Despite foreign rule from the 13th to 20th centuries, the Latvian nation maintained its identity throughout the generations via the language and musical traditions.

As a consequence of centuries of Russian kann uk casino reviews das — and later Soviet occupationLatvia is home to a large number of ethnic Russians Latvia is historically predominantly Protestant Lutheranexcept for the Latgale region in the southeast, which has historically been predominantly Roman Catholic.

ForLatvia was listed 46th on the Human Development Index and as a high income country on 1 July The name Latvija is derived from the name of the ancient Latgaliansone of four Indo-European Baltic tribes along with CouroniansSelonians and Semigallianswhich formed the ethnic core of modern Latvians together with the Finnic Livonians.

CuroniansLatgaliansSeloniansSemigallians in Latvian: In the 12th century in the territory of Latvia, there were 14 lands with their europa club casino latvia Although the local people had had contact with the outside world for centuries, they became more fully integrated into the European socio-political system in the 12th century.

When peaceful means of conversion failed to produce results, Meinhard plotted to convert Livonians by force of arms. Latgaliathe easternmost region of Latvia, became a part of the Inflanty Voivodeship of the Polish-Lithuanian Europa club casino latvia. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, Swedenand Russia struggled for supremacy in the eastern Baltic.

Riga became the capital of Swedish Livonia and largest city in the entire Swedish Empire. Several important cultural changes occurred during this time. Under Swedish and largely German rule, western Latvia adopted Lutheranism as its main religion. The ancient tribes of the Couronians, Semigallians, Selonians, Livs, and northern Latgallians assimilated to form europa club casino latvia Latvian peoplespeaking one Latvian language.

Throughout all the centuries, however, an actual Latvian state had not been established, so the borders and definitions of who exactly fell within that group are largely subjective. The native dialect remained distinct, although it acquired many Polish and Russian loanwords. The Duchy of Courland and Semigallia became an autonomous Russian province the Courland Governorate inbringing all of what is now Latvia into the Russian Empire. All three Baltic provinces preserved local laws, German as the local official language and their own parliament, the Landtag.

During the Great Northern War europa club casino latviaup to 40 percent of Latvians died from famine and plague. The emancipation of the serfs took place in Courland in and in Vidzeme in During the 19th century, the social structure changed dramatically.

The Young Latvian Latvian: Russification began in Latgale after the Polish led the January Uprising in Popular discontent exploded in the Europa club casino latvia Revolutionwhich took a nationalist character in the Baltic provinces. During these two centuries Latvia experienced economic money management tips construction boom — ports were expanded Riga became the largest port in the Russian Empirerailways built; new factories, banks, and a University were established; many residential, public theatres and museumsand school buildings were erected; new parks formed; and so on.

Worth mentioning is the fact that numeracy was also higher in the Estonian and Latvian parts of the Russian Empire, which may have been influenced by the Protestant religion of the inhabitants. World War I devastated the territory of what became the state of Latvia, and other western parts of the Russian Empire.

Demands for self-determination were initially confined to autonomyuntil a power vacuum was created by the Russian Revolution infollowed by the Visit web page of Brest-Litovsk between Russia and Germany in Marchthen the Allied armistice with Germany on 11 November The war of independence that followed was part of a general chaotic period of civil and new border wars in Eastern Europe.

A freely europa club casino latvia Constituent assembly convened on 1 Mayand adopted a liberal constitution, the Satversmein February Since then, it has been amended and is still in effect in Latvia today. Bythe extent of cultivated land surpassed the pre-war level. Innovation and rising productivity led to rapid growth of the economy, but it soon suffered from the effects of the Great Depression. Latvia showed signs of economic recovery, and the electorate had steadily moved toward the centre during the parliamentary period.

On 5 OctoberLatvia was forced to accept a "mutual assistance" pact europa club casino latvia the Soviet Union, granting the Soviets the right to station between source, and 30, troops on Latvian territory. There were some spontaneous uprisings by Latvians against the Red Army which helped the Germans. By 29 June Riga was reached and with Soviet troops killed, captured or retreating, Latvia was left under the control of German forces by early July.

Under German occupation, Latvia was administered as part of Reichskommissariat Ostland. Latvian paramilitary and Auxiliary Police units established by the occupation authority participated in the Holocaust and other atrocities. On occasions, especially inopposing Latvian troops faced each other in battle. Inwhen Soviet advances reached Latvia, heavy fighting took place in Latvia between German and Soviet troops, which ended in another German defeat.

Inpart of the Latvian territory once more came under Soviet control. The Soviets immediately began to reinstate the Soviet system. After the German surrender, it became clear that Soviet forces were there to stay, and Latvian national partisanssoon joined by German collaborators, began to fight against the new occupier. Anywhere fromto as many asLatvians took refuge from the Soviet army by fleeing to Europa club casino latvia and Sweden.

On 25 March43, rural residents " kulaks " and Latvian patriots europa club casino latvia were deported to Siberia in a sweeping Operation Priboi in all three Baltic stateswhich was carefully planned and approved in Moscow already on 29 January In the post-war period, Latvia was made to adopt Soviet farming methods. Rural areas were forced into collectivisation. All of the minority schools Jewish, Polish, Belarusian, Estonian, Lithuanian were closed europa club casino latvia leaving only two media of instructions in the schools: New europa club casino latvia was created in Latvia, including a major machinery factory RAF in Jelgavaelectrotechnical factories in Rigachemical factories in DaugavpilsValmiera and Olaine —and some food and oil processing plants.

Latvia had its own film industry and musical records factory LPs. However, there were not enough people to operate the newly built factories. In the second half of the s, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev started to introduce political and economic reforms in the casinos near Union that were called glasnost and perestroika.

In the summer ofthe first large demonstrations were held in Riga at the Freedom Monument —a symbol of independence. In the summer ofa national movement, coalescing in the Popular Front of Latviawas opposed by the Interfront.

The Latvian SSR, along with the other Baltic Republics was allowed greater autonomy, and inthe pre-war Flag of Latvia flew again, replacing the Soviet Latvian flag as the official flag in Inthe Supreme Soviet of the USSR adopted a resolution on the Occupation of the Baltic stateseuropa club casino latvia which it declared the occupation "not in accordance with law", and not europa club casino latvia "will of the Soviet people".

Pro-independence Popular Front of Latvia candidates gained a two-thirds majority in the Supreme Council in the March europa club casino latvia elections. However, the central power in Moscow continued to regard Latvia as a Soviet republic in and In JanuarySoviet political and military forces tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the Republic of Latvia authorities by occupying the central publishing house in Riga and establishing a Committee of National Salvation to usurp governmental functions.

During the transitional period, Moscow maintained many central Soviet state authorities in Latvia. However, universal citizenship for all permanent residents was not adopted. Instead, citizenship was granted to persons who had been citizens of Latvia at the day of loss of independence at as well as their descendants. As a consequence, the majority of ethnic non-Latvians did not receive Latvian citizenship since neither they nor their parents had ever been citizens of Latvia, becoming non-citizens or citizens of other more info Soviet republics.

Bymore than half of non-citizens had taken naturalisation exams and received Latvian citizenship. Still, today there arenon-citizens in Latvia, which represent They have no citizenship of any countryand cannot europa club casino latvia in Latvia.

The Republic of Latvia declared the end of the transitional period and restored full europa club casino latvia on 21 Augustin the aftermath of the failed Soviet coup attempt.

Russia ended its military presence by completing its troop withdrawal in and shutting down europa club casino latvia Skrunda-1 radar station in Language and citizenship laws have been opposed by many Russophones.

Citizenship was not automatically extended to former Soviet citizens who settled during the Soviet occupation, or to their europa club casino latvia. Children born to non-nationals after the reestablishment of independence are automatically entitled to citizenship. Albeit having experienced a difficult transition to a liberal economy and its re-orientation toward Western Europe, Latvia is one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union.

InRiga was the European Capital of Culturethe euro was introduced as the currency of the country and a Latvian was named vice-president of the European Commission. In Latvia held the presidency of Council of the European Union. An inlet of the Baltic Sea, the shallow Gulf of Riga is situated in the northwest of the country. Coastal regions, especially the western coast of Courland Peninsulapossess a more maritime climate with cooler summers and milder winters, while eastern parts exhibit a online casino new player continental climate with warmer summers and harsher winters.

Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Summer starts in June and lasts until August. Summers are usually warm and sunny, with cool evenings and nights. Spring and autumn bring fairly mild weather.

Most of the country is composed of fertile lowland plains and moderate hills. In a typical Latvian landscape, a mosaic of vast forests alternates with fields, farmsteads, and pastures. Arable land is spotted with birch groves and wooded clusters, which afford a habitat for numerous plants and animals.

Latvia has hundreds of kilometres of undeveloped seashore—lined by pine europa club casino latvia, dunes, and continuous white sand beaches. Latvia has the 5th highest proportion of land covered by forests in the European Union, after Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Slovenia. Major rivers include the Daugava RiverLielupeGaujaVenta Salacathe largest spawning ground for salmon in the eastern Baltics.

Latvia has a long tradition of conservation. The first laws and regulations were promulgated in the 16th and 17th centuries. Latvia has ratified the international Washington, Bern, and Ramsare conventions. Approximately 30, species of flora and fauna have been registered in Latvia.

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Latvia (/ ˈ l æ t v i ə / (listen); Latvian: Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of.
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Latvia (/ ˈ l æ t v i ə / (listen); Latvian: Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of.
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Latvia (/ ˈ l æ t v i ə / (listen); Latvian: Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of.
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